Fukuyama and the Future of History

COMPELLING READ: Councillor Robert Howard recommends Francis Fukuyama, “The Future of History“, Foreign Affairs, 91: 1, Jan/Feb 2012.

In his landmark book, The End of History (1992) Francis Fukuyama celebrated the promise of a new world order driven by market economics and democracy. In this article he notes that market forces have eroded the middle classes in countries everywhere and questions what this might mean for the future of democracy.

– Dr Robert Howard

Extract, Francis Fukuyama:

Something strange is going on in the world today. The global financial crisis that began in 2008 and the ongoing crisis of the euro are both products of the model of lightly regulated financial capitalism that emerged over the past three decades. Yet despite widespread anger at Wall Street bailouts, there has been no great upsurge of left-wing American populism in response. It is conceivable that the Occupy Wall Street movement will gain traction, but the most dynamic recent populist movement to date has been the right-wing Tea Party, whose main target is the regulatory state that seeks to protect ordinary people from financial speculators. Something similar is true in Europe as well, where the left is anemic and right-wing populist parties are on the move. There are several reasons for this lack of left-wing mobilization, but chief among them is a failure in the realm of ideas. For the past generation, the ideological high ground on economic issues has been held by a libertarian right. The left has not been able to make a plausible case for an agenda other than a return to an unaffordable form of old-fashioned social democracy. This absence of a plausible progressive counter­narrative is unhealthy, because competition is good for intellectual ­debate just as it is for economic activity. And serious intellectual debate is urgently needed, since the current form of globalized capitalism is eroding the middle-class social base on which liberal democracy rests.

(Subscription required for full access): http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/136782/francis-fukuyama/the-future-of-history

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